The uterine cervix normally extends into the vaginal vault.
Following cervical dilatation (increase in the diameter of the opening or lumen) the uterine contents can be assessed under direct visualization using a hysteroscope. Alternatively, probing the cavity with a curet can provide some information about the uterine contents.
The amount of information that can be obtained is far greater when viewing the cavity directly with a hysteroscope as compared to blunt tactile probing with a curet.
Dilatation and curettage (D+C) is a popular gynecologic procedure that can scrape material from the wall that lines the uterine cavity. The tissue that is recovered can then be sent for microscopic examination.
When the uterine cavity is evaluated and treated as a potential cause of infertility the additional information that is obtained with a hysteroscope and the ability to remove material under direct visualization can be very valuable.